Quotations & Complex Sentences - என்5

The verb என்5 is one of the Class 5 Verbs. என்5 means "say", just like சொல்3. In addition, என்5 can also be used to make complex sentences, as we will see in this lesson.


Quotations are used to restate what other people have said. Direct quotations show exactly what people have said. (Ex: " 'The fisherman departed in the boat', said the child.") Indirect quotations show what people have said, but not necessarily in the exact way that they said it. (Ex: "The child said that the fisherman departed.")

The word என்று, which is also the AvP of என்5, is placed immediately after the quotation. Traditionally in Thamil, the indirect form of quotations has been used predominantly. In the history of Thamil, the usage of the quotation marks is a relatively recent thing. Thus, direct quotations in Thamil are distinguished mainly by quotation marks, and indirect quotations do not have quotation marks.


When restating the speech of another person, the correct tense of என்று5 can be used as an alternative to the "என்று ... சொல்3" style of quotations.

complex sentences

Complex sentences can be formed using என்று to insert new phrases in a way that is similar to how indirect quotations are formed. The phrase is inserted into the sentence and is followed immediately with என்று. In such sentences, the embedded phrase can often be a question.

Translations of the Thamil to English will vary according to the sentence.